PREFACE

XXXv

did. The true percentages for the 467 lie between two limits: the upper limit supposes the richness of the 207 to be shared by the 26o; the lower limit supposes it to be concentrated in the 207, the remaining 26o being utterly barren of it. Consequently, the upper limit is found by multiplying the number of observations by ioo and dividing by 207, the lower by multiplying by i oo and dividing by 467. These limits are unreasonably wide ; I cannot guess which is the more remote from the truth, but it cannot be far removed from their mean values, and this may be accepted as roughly approximate. The observations and conclusions from them are given in Table V I I., p. xl.

CHAPTER IX.-MARKED AND UNMARKED DEGREES

OF NTOTEWORTHINESS.

Persons who are technically " noteworthy " are by no means of equal eminence, some being of the highest distinction, while others barely deserve the title. I t is therefore important to ascertain the amount of error to which a statistical discussion is liable that treats everyone who ranks as noteworthy at all on equal terms. The problem resembles a familiar one that relates to methods for electing Parliamentary representatives, such as have been proposed at various times, whether it should be by the coarse method of one man one vote, or through

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