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".1   QUALITIES.   135

Next, as regards the effect of dogmatic teaching, or of "creed," on research. I had expected it to have been much more deterrent and hindering than the answers warrant. The suicide of the geologist, Hugh Miller, whose brain gave way under the conflict between dogmatic creed

and scientific doubt, is a terrible tale. One would have thought that the anathemas from the pulpits against most new scientific discoveries, as soon as they became capable of popular application, such as geological history, antiquity of man, and Darwinism, must have deterred many ; and, as I have already shown, few of the sons of clergymen are on my list. Nevertheless, in answer to my direct inquiry " Has the religious creed taught in your youth had a deterrent effect on the freedom of your researches?" I am met with an overpowering majority of negatives. Seven or eight say " no,"

justifying their assertion by various reasons, to one who says "yes," as is shown by the appended replies. These may be sorted into the four following groups :

(1) "No" deterrent effect-39 cases.   (2)