t.] ANTECEDENTS. 19
The birthplaces of scientific men and of their parents are usually in towns, away from the sea coast. Out of every 5 birthplaces I find that I lies in London or its suburbs ; 1 in an important town, such as Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dublin, Birmingham, Liverpool, or Manchester ; 1 is in a small town ; and 2 either in a village or actually in the country. These returns are given with more detail in the foot-note.' The branch of science pursued is often in curious disaccord with the surrounding influence of the birthplace. Mechanicians are usually hardy lads born in the country, biologists are frequently pure townsfolk. Partly in consequence of the prevalence of their urban distribution I find that an irregular plot may be marked on the map of England which includes much less than one-half of its area, but more than 92 per cent. of the birthplaces of the English scientific men or of their parents. The accompanying diagram shows its position ; one thin
1 London, 16; suburbs, 5; = 21. Edinburgh and Glasgow, 7 ; Cork, Belfast, and Dublin, 6 ; Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester, 5 ; total= 18. Smaller towns, 21; elsewhere, 40. General total, 100.