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had a goodly response, and the names of the prizewinners were duly published in the newspapers. I was much indebted, when devising the programme and other prefatory details, both to Professor Allman (1812-1898), the biologist, and to my old friend at King's College, Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Simon. The material afforded by the answers proved of considerable importance, and formed the basis of much of my future work. I had it extracted in a statistical form, in considerable detail, which was of much value to Professor Karl Pearson at the outset of his inquiries, before he had been able to collect better and much more numerous data of his own. It will be convenient to defer speaking of the results of all this until the last chapter.

I had long tried to gain some insight into the relative powers of Nature and Nurture, in order that due allowance might be made for Environment, neither too much nor too little, but without finding an adequate method of obtaining it. At length it occurred to me that the after-history of those twins who had been closely alike as children, and were afterwards parted, or who had been originally unlike and afterwards reared together, would supply much of what was wanted. So I inquired in all {directions for appropriate cases, and at length obtained a fair supply, on which an article in Frazer's Magazine, Nov. 1875,1 was written. The evidence was overwhelming that the power of Nature was far stronger than that of

1 It was revised and added to in the journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1875 [43], and then incorporated into Human Faculty, 1883 (which is now republished in an exceedingly cheap form in "Everyman's Library ").