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He7nbrane, Sinew, Horn.


sive dippings, the entire length of any amount of intestine, however narrow it may be, can be turned inside out in a minute or two. Having turned the intestine inside out, scrape off the whole of its inner soft parts ; what remains is a fine transparent tube, which, being twisted up tightly and stretched to dry, forms catgut.

Membrane Thread.-Steep the intestines of any animal in water for a day ; then peel off the outer membrane, which will come off in long strips; these should be twisted up between the hands, and hung out to dry ; they form excellent threads, for sewing skins together, or indeed for any other purpose.

Sinews for Thread.-Any sinews will do for making thread if the fibres admit of being twisted or plaited together into pieces of sufficient length. The sinews lying alongside the backbone are the most convenient, on account of the length of their fibres. After the sinew is dried straight strips are torn off it of the proper size; they are wetted, and scraped into evenness by being drawn through the mouth and teeth ; then, by one or two rubs between the hand and the thigh, they become twisted and their fibres are retained together. A piece of dried sinew is usually kept in reserve for making thread or string.

Glue is made by boiling down hides, or even tendons, hoofs, and horns, for a long time, taking care that they are not charred; then drawing off the fluid and letting it set.

Isinglass is made readily by steeping the stomach and intestines of fish in cold water, and then gently boiling them into a jelly : this is spread into sheets and allowed to dry. The air-bladder of the sturgeon makes the true isinglass. (See " Paste and Gum," p. 332.)

Horn, Tortoiseshell, and Whalebone.-Horn is so easily worked into shape that travellers, especially in pastoral countries, should be acquainted with its properties. By boiling, or exposing it to heat in hot sand, it is made quite soft, and can be moulded into whatever shape you will. Not only this, but it can also be welded by heating and pressing two edges