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330   Art of Travel.

if a l2mo. at every 24th page, and so on: it is a mere matter of semi-mechanical reckoning to know where each succeeding stitching is to be found ; in this volume the stitching is at pages 216, 232, 248, &c., the interval being 16 pages. Next take the cotton and wind it in between the pages where the stitching is, and over the back round and round, beginning with the first sheet, and going on sheet after sheet until you have reached the last one. 3rdly. Lay the book on the table back upwards, daub it thoroughly with paste, put on the calico cover as neatly as you can, and set it to dry as before ; when dry it is complete.

Other Materials for Writing.-Quills and other Pens.-Any feather that is large enough, can be at once made into a good writing-quill. It has only to be dipped in hot sand, which causes the membrane inside the quill to shrivel up, and the outside membrane to split and peel off : a few instants are sufficient to do this. The proper temperature of the sand is about 340°. The operation may be repeated with advantage two or three times. Reeds are in universal use throughout the East for writing with ink. Flat fish-bones make decent pens.

Pencils.-Lead pencils were literally made of the metal lead in former days ; and there are some parts of the world, as in Arabia, where they are still to be met with. A piece of lead may be cast into a serviceable shape in the method described under "Lead," and will make a legible mark upon ordinary paper. Lead is the best material for writing in note-books of " Prepared Paper" (which see). A better sort of pencil for general use is made by sawing charcoal into narrow strips, and laying them in melted wax to drench for a couple of days, they are then ready for use.

Paint brushes.-Wash the bit of tail or skin, whence the hair is to be taken, in ox-gall, till it is quite free from grease. Then snip off the hairs close to the skin, put them points downwards resting in a box, and pick out.the long hairs. After a sufficient quantity have been obtained of about the same length, a piece of string is knotted tightly round them, and pulled firm with the aid of two sticks. Then a quill,

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