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290   Art of f Travel.

way, for the sake of the lead. They will effect your purpose admirably, without suspecting it.

Stamping Marks on Trees.--The keepers of some of the communal forests in Switzerland are provided with small axes, having the back of the axe-head worked into a large and sharp die, the impression of the die being some letter or cipher indicating the commune. When these foresters wish to mark a tree, they give it first a slice with the edge of the axe, and then (turning the axe) they deal it a heavy blow with the back of the axe-head. By the first operation they prepare a clean surface for their mark ; and, by the second, they stamp their cipher deeply into the wood.

Branding Trees.-Some explorers take branding irons, and use them to mark each of their camping-places with its number. This is especially useful in Australian travel, where the country is monotonous, and there are few natives to tell the names of places.

Faggot hung to a Tree.-A bundle of grass or twigs about 2 feet long, slung by its middle athwart a small tree, at the level of the, eye, by the side of a path, is well calculated to catch the attention. Its lines are so different to those seen elsewhere in the forest, that it would be scarcely possible to overlook it.

Boat or Canoe Routes through lakes well studded with islands, can be well marked by trimming conspicuous trees until only a tuft of branches is left at the top. This is called, in the parlance of the " Far West," a " lopstick."

Wooden Crosses.-A simple structure like fig. 1 is put together with a single nail or any kind of lashing. It catches the attention immediately.

Marks with Stones.-Marks cut on Stone.-I have observed a very simple and conspicuous permanent mark used in forest-roads, as represented in fig. 2. The stone is 8 inches above ground, 32 wide, 8 inches long : the mark is

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