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Fishing.   269

moderately adept in its use, without months of instruction and practice.

Hamstringing.-Animals are hamstrung by riding at them, armed with a sort of spear ; the blade of which is fixed at right angles to the shaft, and has a cutting edge.

Hawking is a disappointing pursuit, owing to the frequent loss of hawks ; and can hardly be carried on except in a hawking country, where the sportsman has a better chance than elsewhere, both of recovering and replacing them; it is impracticable except where the land is open and bare ; and it is quite a science. There are some amateurs who will not hear a word of disparagement about their hawks, but the decided impression that I bear away with me from all I have learnt, is, that the birds are rarely affectionate or intelligent.


Fishing-tackle.-Fish-hooks are made of iron, not steel, wire. While the piece of wire is straight, it is laid along a little groove in a block of wood, and there barbed by the stroke of a chisel, slantwise across it. The other eud is flattened by a tap of the hammer, or roughened, that it may be held by the whipping ; then the point is sharpened by a file, and finished on a stone. The proper curvature is next given, and then the hook is case-hardened (see " Case-hardening ") ; lastly, the proper temper is given, by heating the hook red-hot, and quenching it in grease.

A traveller should always take a few hooks with him : they should be of the very small and also of the middling-sized sorts; he might have a dozen of each sort whipped on to gut ; and at least a couple of casting-lines, with which to use them : also several dozens of tinned iron fish-hooks, of various sizes, such as are used at sea ; and plenty of line.

Fishing-lines.-Twisted sinews will make a fishing-line. To make a strong fine line, unravel a good silk handkerchief, and twist the threads into a whipcord. (See also " Substitutes for String.")

Gut is made from silkworms ; but the scrapings of the membrane in the manufacture of catgut (see " Sinew-thread")