Guns and Ryes. 237
is attached to the pump handle; the valves that cover the holes in this disc, open upwards also. When the leatherpump barrel is pressed flat, water flows through the upper valves into the barrel around it; when it is pulled out, water is sucked up through the feed-pipe, and an equal quantity is displaced from the barrel. This flows out into the trough. A bag would do as well as a tub, to hold the water which surrounds the pump-barrel; but, without the water which it is the object of either the one or the other to contain, the pump-barrel must be air-proof as well as water-proof. The action of this pump is marvellously perfect. It attracted much attention in the French Exhibition of 1855.
GUNS AND RIFLES.
General Remarks.-Breech-loaders.-At the present time when the merits of different kinds of breech-loader are so hotly discussed, when all that have yet been invented have some faults, and every month brings to light some slew invention, it would be foolish in me to write anything about them ; it would be obsolete before the great majority of my readers should have seen this book. Therefore omitting breech-loaders altogether from the present edition, I will confine myself to repeating what I have said before upon muzzle-loaders, with additions and alterations.
Size of Gun.-American bushrangers advocate a long heavy pea-rifle, on the plea of its accurate shooting, and the enormous saving in weight of ammunition when bullets of a small size are used. The objections to small-bored rifles are, insufficiency against large game (even with conical bullets), and a tendency to become foul after a few shots. A short light rifle, whether with a large or a small bore, is, I believe, utterly worthless. In the hands of a man trembling with running and with exhaustion, it shakes like a wand : the shorter the rifle, the more quickly does it oscillate, and of course, in the same proportion, is it difficult to catch the exact moment when the sights cover the object.
For the larger kinds of game, such as elephants and buf faloes, experienced sportsmen mostly prefer guns of immense