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234   Art of Travel.

give a good hold for lifting them up. They could easily be filled as they lay in their compartments, and would only require to be lifted out in order to empty them; there is, therefore, no objection to their holding as much as 60 lbs. weight of -water. An india-rubber tube as a siphon, and with a common spigot at the end of it, would be particularly useful. A pannier not much exceeding 30 inches long, by 20 broad, and 18 deep, would hold six of these bags, or 360 lbs. weight of water in all; and two such panniers would be ample for exploring purposes. I had a pannier and two bags made for a trial, which w, ere quite satisfactory, and I found that the weight of the panniers and bags together was at the rate of 6 lbs. for each compartment ; therefore the weight of these water-vessels is not more than 10 per cent. of that of the water which they carry. It might be well to vary the contents of some of the compartments ; putting, for instance, two or even three small bags into one, and tin cases into a few of the others, instead of the large bags. These panniers, with the bags inflated, and connected together by a stage, would form an excellent and powerful raft. If secured within a wagon about to cross a deep river, they would have enough power, in all ordinary cases, to cause it to float and not to sink to the bottom. I trust some explorer will try this plan. I may add that the macintosh water-bags cost me about 11. each.


Raw Hide Bags.-Captain Sturt, when he explored in Australia, took a tank in his cart, which burst, and, besides that, he carried casks of water. By these he was enabled to face a desert country with a degree of success to which no traveller before had ever attained. For instance, when returning homewards, the water was found to be drying up on all sides of him. He was encamped by a pool where he was safe, whence the next stage was 118 miles, or 4 days' journey, but it was a matter of considerable doubt whether there remained any water at the end of the stage. It was absolutely necessary to reconnoitre, and, in order to do so, he had first to provide the messenger with means of returning, should the watering-place be found dry. He killed a bullock, skinned it, and filling the skin with water (which held 150 gallons),

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