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Water for Drinking.   231

stopper of wood, bone, or other hard substance. Thread, wound round a slightly conical plug that has been sufficiently notched to retain it in its place, makes it nearly watertight as a stopper. It is of less importance that the stopper should fit closely, if the flask be so slung that its mouth shall be always uppermost : a very imperfect cork will then be sufficient to check evaporation and splashing, and to prevent the loss of more than a few drops from occasional upsets.

Drinking, wizen riding or walking.-It is an awkward matter to drink when jolting on wheels, on horseback, or on foot. I adopted the plan of carrying a piece of small india-rubber tubing 6 or 8 inches long, and when I wished to drink, I removed the stopper and inserted the tube, just as an insect might let down its proboscis, and sucked the contents. Sir S. Baker says of the people of LTnyoro, " During a journey, a pretty, bottle-shaped, long-necked gourd is carried with a store of plantain-cider ; the mouth of the bottle is stopped with a bundle of the white rush shreds, through which a reed is inserted that reaches to the bottom : thus the drink can be sucked up during the march, without the necessity of halting ; nor is it possible to spill it by the movement of walking."

Kegs and Tanks.-Kegs for Pack-saddles.-Small barrels, flattened equally on both sides, so that their tops and bottoms shall be of an oval and not a circular shape, are the most convenient vessels, notwithstanding their weight, for carrying water on pack-saddles across a broken country. They are exceedingly strong, and require no particular attention, while bags of leather or macintosh suffer from thorns, and natives secretly prick them during the march, that they may suck a draught of water. These kegs should not exceed 22 inches in length, 10 in extreme breadth, and 7 in extreme width ; a cask of these measurements would hold about 40 lbs. weight of water, and its own weight might be 1- lbs. As the water is expended, it is easy to replace the diminished weight by putting on a bag from one of the other packs. Before starting away into the bush, these kegs should be satisfactorily fitted and adjusted to the pack-saddle that is intended to carry them, in such a way that they may be packed on to it with the least possible trouble. A couple of leather or iron loops