Art of Travel.
siliceous stone, as agate, rock-crystal, or quartz. Agate is preferred to flint, for it gives a hotter spark : it is sold by tobacconists. A partly siliceous stone, such as granite, will answer in default of one that is wholly siliceous. I have been surprised at finding that crockery and porcelain of all kinds will make a spark, and sometimes a very good one. There are cases where a broken teacup might be the salvation of many lives in a shipwrecked party. On coral-reefs, and other coasts destitute of flinty stones, search should be made for drift-wood and drifted sea-weed. In the roots of these, the pebbles of other shores are not unfrequently entangled, and flint may be found among them. The joints of bamboos occasionally contain enough silex to give a spark.
Steels.-The possession of a really good steel is a matter of great comfort in rough travel, for, as I have just said, common iron is incompetent to afford a useful spark, and hardened iron or soft steel is barely sufficient to do so. Any blacksmith will make a good steel out of an old file, if he has nothing more appropriate at hand. A substitute for a steel can be made, even by an ordinary traveller, out of common iron, by means of "casehardening " (which see). The link of a chain, or the iron heel of a boot, or a broken horse-shoe, is of a convenient shape for the purpose.
Pyrites are, and have been, widely used for striking sparks. Two pieces struck together, or one piece struck with a steel, gives a good spark; but it is a very friable mineral, and therefore not nearly so convenient as flint.
Guns.-If you wish to get a light by means of a flint-andsteel gun, the touch-hole may be stuffed up, and a piece of tinder put among the priming powder : a light can be obtained in that way without firing the gun. With a percussion-cap gun, a light may be obtained by putting powder and tinder outside the nipple and round the cap ; it will, though not with certainty, catch fire on exploding the cap. But the common way with a gun is to pour in a quarter of a charge of powder, and above it, quite loosely, a quantity of rag or tinder. On firing the gun straight up in the air, the rag will be shot out lighted ; you must then run after it as it falls, and pick it quickly up. With percussion-caps, gunpowder,
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