Art of Travel.
climates the chill would be far greater ; such would also be the case at high elevations. One of Mr. Glaisher's experiments showed a difference of no less than 28° between the cold on the ground and that at 8 feet high. This might often be rivalled in an elevated desert, as in that of Mongolia. Hence the value of the protection of a roof and of a raised sleeping-place, to a man sleeping under a blue sky in still weather, admits of easy interpretation.
Various Methods of Bivouacking.-Unprotecte(Z.-Mr. Shaw, the traveller in Thibet, says:-" My companion and I walked on to keep ourselves warm, but halting at sunset, had to sit and freeze several hours before the things came up. The best way of keeping warm on such an occasion, is to squat down, kneeling against a bank, resting your head on the bank, and nearly between your knees. Then tuck your overcoat in, all round you, over head and all ; and if you are lucky, and there is not too much wind, you will make a little atmosphere of your own inside the covering, which will be snug in comparison with the outside air. Your feet suffer chiefly, but you learn to tie yourself into a kind of knot, bringing as many surfaces of your body together as possible. I have passed whole nights in this kneeling position, and slept well ; whereas I should not have got a wink had I been stretched at full length with such a scanty covering as a great-coat."
Bushes.-I have shown that the main object before sleeping out at night is to secure a long wind-tight wall, and that the next is to obtain a roof. Both these objects may be attained by pleaching two or three small neighbouring bushes into one ; or branches may be torn off elsewhere and interwoven between the bushes. A few leafy boughs, cut and stuck into the ground, with their tops leaning over the bed, and secured in that position by other boughs, wattled-in horizontally, give great protection. Long grass, &c., should be plucked and strewn against them to make them as wind-tight as possible.
Walls.-A pile of saddle-bags and other travelling gear may be made into a good screen against the wind ; and travellers usually arrange them with that intention. Walls of stone
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