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Clothing.   117

upper edge of the trousers acts sufficiently well. Capt. Speke told me he always used this plan.

Boots.-Boots of tanned leather such as civilised people wear, are incomparably better for hard usage, especially in wet countries, than those of hand-dressed skins. If travelling in a hot, dry country, grease plentifully both your shoes and. all other leather. " La graisse est la conservation du cuir," as 1 recollect a Chamouni guide enunciating with profound emphasis. The soles of plaited cord used in parts of the Pyrenees, are durable and excellent for clambering over smooth rock. They have a far better hold upon it than any other sole of which I have knowledge. Sandals are better than nothing at all. So are cloths wound round the feet and ankles and tied there : the peasants of the remarkable hilly place where I am writing these lines, namely Amalfi, use them much. They are an untidy chaussure, but never seem to require to be tied afresh. In the old days of Rome this sort of foot-gear was common. Haybands wound round the feet are a common makeshift by soldiers who are cut off from their supplies. It takes some months to harden the feet sufficiently to be able to walk without shoes at all. Slippers are great luxuries to footsore men. They should of course be of soft material, but the soles should not be too thin or they will be too cold for comfort in camp life.

Leggings.-Macintosh leggings to go over the trousers are a great comfort in heavy showers, especially when riding.

Gaiters.-If the country be full of briars and thorns, the insteps suffer cruelly when riding through bushes. It is easy to make gaiters either with buttons or buckles. A strip of wood is wanted, either behind or else on each side of them, to keep them from slipping down to the ankle.

Dressing Gown.-Persons who travel, even with the smallest quantity of luggage, would do wisely to take a thick dressinggown. It is a relief to put it on in the evening, and is a warm extra dress for sleeping in. It is eminently useful, comfortable and durable.

Poncho.-A poncho is useful, for it is a sheet as well as a