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Rafts and Boats.   103

are delicately built and apparently fragile, experience has amply proved that they can stand an extraordinary amount of hard usage in the hands of careful travellers. As a general rule, it is by no means the heaviest and most solid things that endure the best. If a lightly-made apparatus can be secured from the risk of heavy things falling upon it, it will outlast a heavy apparatus that shakes to pieces under the jar of its own weight.

A hole cut in the square sail enables the voyager to see ahead.

To carry on Horseback.-Mr. Macgregor, when in Syria, took two strong poles, each 16 feet long, and about 3 inches thick at the larger end. These were placed on the ground 2 feet apart, and across them, at 3 feet from each end, he lashed two stout staves, about 4 feet long. Then a " leading" horse was selected, that is, one used to lead caravans, and on his back a large bag of straw was well girthed and flattened down. The frame was firmly tied on this, and the canoe, wrapped in carpets, was placed on the frame. This simple method was used for three months over sand and snow, rock and jungle, mud and marsh-anywhere indeed that a horse could go. The frame was elevated in front, so as to allow the horse's head some room under the boat's keel. Two girth-straps kept the canoe firmly in position above, and carpets were used as cushions under its bilge. A boy led the horse, and a strong man was told off to hold fast to the canoe in every difficulty. It will be seen, that in the event of a fall, the corners of the framework would receive the shock, not the canoe.


Boating Gear.-Anchors may be made of wood weighted with

Fig. l .

stones. Fig. 1 shows the anchor used by Brazilian fishermen