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Rafts and Boats.

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other trees would do for covering the framework of a boat, in default of leather. But it is useless to give a detailed account of birch canoes, as great skill and neat execution are required both in making and in using them.


Boats of Sheet-tin, covered with Pitched Canvas.-These might

be made at any of the outposts of civilization. I am indebted to a correspondent, whose name I regret exceedingly to be unable to insert, having unfortunately mislaid it, for the following full description of his shooting-punt. It will be obvious that his methods are applicable not only to their professed object, but also to tin boats of any shape whatever.

Form the bottom, fig. I., as follows :-Select the thickest sheets of tin and solder them together by their narrowest sides, until as many lengths are made as, when laid side by side, will be sufficient for the whole length and breadth of the figure. The soldering should be by a joint of this kind. These lengths must then be soldered side '~    by side by a similar joint, and the whole sheet thus made, trimmed to the shape of fig. I., care being taken that no two joints in the lengths should be exactly opposite each other. Form two other sheets in a similar manner for the two sides, and of the shape of fig. II. The dotted lines a b c d e f; fig. I., show the portions of the tin round the edges, I inch wide, which must be turned up at right angles with the bottom, and to which the sides are to be soldered on the inside ; they should have triangular pieces clipped out of them, as shown in the fig., where the bends of the boat begin, to make them take the curve required. The two extra pieces at the ends a d, e f, 2 inches wide, are for turning down over an iron rod, which is to pass round the gunwale, to give stiffness to the boat; g h, fig. II., is a breadth of 2 inches of extra tin, for the same purpose of turning down over the iron rod.

"Each side is now to be soldered to the bottom piece, beginning with the centre, and working in to each end.

" The soldering of the turned- up edges to the bottom, on the outside, may then be done. Separate slips of tin 2 inches wide should then be bent up longitudinally in halves, like angle-iron, and fitted along the joining of the bottom and sides, on the inside, and soldered ; these slips may also be