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The figure below is a better sort of swivel. It must be made of hard tough wood,

like oak : it is six inches in length. It has, I presume, some advantages over those of iron, because

in countries where iron abounds, as in Piedmont, it holds its ground against them. The ropes have been drawn thinner than their just proportion, for the sake of distinctness.

I give a drawing of yet an

other description of swivel ; it is a trifle more complicated than the first, but I am assured that

it acts so much better as to be greatly preferable.

Horse-collar.-This, in its simplest form, consists of two stout bars that are a little bent or shaped with a knife ; they go one on either side of the animal's neck, and are tied together both above and below it. To these bars, which are very thickly padded, the traces are fastened.

Traces and Trektows can be made of raw hide, cut into a long thong, then bent into three parts, and twisted and laid together, as is done in rope-making ; the whole is then stretched tight between two trees to dry. An ox-hide will make a trektow for four pairs of oxen. Poles of wood are very generally used as traces ; a thong, or a few links of chain, being fastened at either end, by which to attach them.

Greasing Harness.-In dry climates take frequent opportunities of greasing every part of the harness. (See " Hides ; Leather, to grease.")


Wagons.-A traveller's wagon should be of the simplest possible construction, and not too heavy. The Cape wagons, or, at all events, those of a few years back, undoubtedly shared the ponderousness of all Dutch workmanship. Weight is