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70   Art o f Travel.

" The bags sometimes came off when we were travelling ;
but it was generally easy to catch the horse and reload him.
When a horse rolled over, or fell in a river, it was rather an
advantage than otherwise to get clear of them. Our water
proof bags were of leather, lined with waterproof cloth, just
large enough to fill one of the canvas pack-bags. They had
a brass neck with a worm inside, in which we screwed a plug
of soft wood. (There was rarely, if ever, occasion to use
them.) Each pair of bags was
carefully balanced, one against
the other, that the horses
might not be unequally loaded.
The average weight of stores
carried in each bag was 75 lbs.,
making a load (at starting)
of 150 lbs., exclusive of bags,

packages, or saddlery. Bells

were attached to the necks of the horses most apt to stray ; but the clappers were tied up with a piece of thong, to keep them quiet on the march ; and were loosened at night, so that the sound might guide us in searching for them next morning.

" We watched two hours each during night ; the morning watch boiled the water, and woke the rest at four. W e made our breakfast of tea or coffee, damper, and pork, which we ate raw, and went out for the horses ; which were generally saddled up, and on the move, before sunrise. We travelled till one or two, when we led the horses to water, looked to any sores that might be caused by the pressure of their saddles, dressed them and altered the stuffing of the saddle to give them relief, and, after dinner, which was rather a brief ceremony, had the rest of the day for scientific or artistic pursuits, -that is, if something else did not require immediate attention. We could never trust to our guns for provision, as game was very scarce, and we had no opportunity of seeking it."

Sir Samuel Baker gave considerable attention to the subject of pack-saddles. The following is his account of the method he adopted in Africa:-" I had arranged their (the donkeys') packs so well, that they carried their loads with the greatest

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