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Harness.   67

horse. To keep the whole in shape, it is usual to stitch four or five laths of wood lengthways to the upper surface of the pad ; upon these laths the bag will rest. If there be occasion to carry a bag on horseback for a short distance, pass one of the stirrup-leathers through its string; then throw the bag over to the other side of the saddle : it will lie behind the rider's leg, and be out of his way and he will sit upon part of its string.

Australians, as is well known, insist on the merits of a " swag," or a long package formed by rolling all their possessions into their blanket. They carry it over the saddle-bows.


Sore banks.-Sore backs are the plague of beasts of burden ; for, if the skin be once broken, it will never heal thoroughly again during the whole journey. Every precaution should, therefore, be taken at first starting : the saddles should be well-stuffed ; the saddle-cloths ample, and without hem or edging (blankets are as good as any) ; the journeys should be short; the packs light and carefully balanced; rests of a day or two should frequently be given, and salt-water should be rubbed on the back. Travelling in the very early morning is found to be bad for animals' backs ; but travelling late at night is not so. An Australian correspondent remarks, that a party of travellers or explorers in Australia, on leaving their camp, invariably saddle their horses with ample saddlecloths below the saddle, and assist each other by turns, to fold the cloths in various ways. For

instance, if the ridge of the back, or

wither, should be found galled, the cloth would be folded up, so that the saddle should rest entirely on the

two folded pads, as in the figure.-Other modes of folding will suggest themselves, according to the way in which the back may be rubbed.

The first appearance of a sore back is a small hardish swelling or warble : this must at once be attended to, either by folding the saddle-cloth in some appropriate way, or by picking out the saddle-stuffing, so as to ease all pressure from off it; otherwise, it will get larger and larger, and a single day will convert what might have been easily cured, into a serious