Dogs,-Dogs will draw a "travail" (which see) of 60 lbs. for 15 miles a day, over hard, level country, for days together ; frequently they will accomplish much * more than that. For Arctic travel, they are used in journeys after they are three years old; each dog requires eight or ten herrings per day, or an equivalent to them. A sledge of 12 dogs carries 900 lbs. ; it travels on smooth ice seven or eight miles an hour ; and in 36 days, 22 sledges and 240 dogs travelled 800 miles-1210 versts. (Admiral Wrangel.) Dogs are used by the Patagonian fishermen to drive fish into their nets, and to prevent them from breaking through the nets when they are inside them. (See next paragraph for " Sheep-dogs.")
Goats and sheep.-Goats are much more troublesome to drive than sheep, neither are they such enduring walkers, nor do they give as much meat ; but their skins are of such great use to furnish strong leather, that it is seldom convenient to make up a caravan without them. She-goats give some milk, even when travelling fast, and in dry countries; but a ewesheep is not worth milking under those circumstances, as her yield is a mere nothing. Goats are very mischievous-they make their way out of all enclosures, and trespass everywhere. They butt at whatever is bright or new, or strange to them ; and would drive an observer, who employed astronomical instruments on stands, to distraction. In an open country, where there are no bushes for a kraal, nets must be taken, and stakes cut, to make enclosures for the sheep. If they stray at all, the least thing scares them, and they will wander very far, and scatter. Goats are far more social and intelligent. If one, two, or three sheep only be driven, long thongs must be tied to their legs, and allowed to trail along the ground, by which they may be re-caught if they gallop off. When the Messrs. Schlagintweit were encamped at vast heights, among the snows of the Himalay a, they always found it practicable to drive sheep to their stations. 'When sheep, &c., are long hurdled at night, near the same encampment, the nuisance of flies and ticks becomes intolerable. Sheepdogs seem to prove of less use to travellers than might have been expected ; perhaps the other dogs corrupt them.
Management of Cattle generally,-To make an animal rise