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42   Art of Travel.

Measurement of Time.-Sun Dial.-Plant a stake firmly in the ground in a level open space, and get ready a piece of string, a tent-peg, and a bit of stick a foot long. When the stars begin to appear, and before it is dark, go to the stake, lie down on the ground, and plant the stick, so adjusting it that its top and the point where the string is tied to the stake shall be in a line with the Polar Star, or rather with the Pole (see below) ; then get up, stretch the string so as just to touch the top of the stick, and stake it down with the tent-peg. Kneel down again, to see that all is right, and in the morning draw out the dial-lines; the string being the gnomon. The true North Pole is distant about 112 degree, or three suns' (or moons') diameters from the Polar Star, and it lies between the Polar Star and the pointers of the Great Bear, or, more truly, between it and C Urse Majoris.

The one essential point of dial-making is to set the gnomon truly, because it ensures that the shadows shall fall in the same direction at the same hours all the year round. To ascertain where to mark the hour-lines on the ground, or wall, on which the shadow of the gnomon falls, the simplest plan is to use a watch, or whatever makeshift means of

reckoning time be at hand. Calculations are troublesome, unless the plate is quite level, or vertical, and exactly facing south or north, or else in the plane of the Equinox.

The figure represents the wellknown equinoctial sun-dial. It can easily be cast in lead. The spike points towards the elevated pole, and

the rim of the disc is divided into 24 equal parts for the hours.


Pendulum.-A traveller, when the last of his watches breaks down, has no need to be disheartened from going on with his longitudinal observations, especially if he observes occultations and eclipses. The object of a watch is to tell the number of seconds that elapse between the instant of occultation, eclipse, &c., and the instant, a minute or two later, when the sextant observation for time is made. All that a watch actually does

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