Measurements. 3 3

some ascertainable number of seconds, dependent upon the length of his step. If the length of his step be 30 inches, he will occupy 17 seconds in making 10 paces. Conversely, if the same person counts his paces for 17 seconds, and finds that he has taken 10 in that time, he will know that he is walking at the rate of exactly 1 mile per hour. If he had taken 40 paces in the same period, he would know that his rate had been 4 miles per hour; if 35 paces, that it had been 3.5, or 32 miles per hour. Thus it will be easily intelligible, that if a man knows the number of seconds appropriate to the length of his pace, he can learn the rate at which he is walking, by counting his paces during that number of seconds and by dividing the number of his paces so obtained, by 10. In short the number of his paces during the period in question, gives his rate per hour, in miles and decimals of a mile, to one place of decimals. I am indebted to Mr. Archibald Smith for this very ingenious notion, which I have worked into the following Tables. In Table I., I give the appropriate number of seconds corresponding to paces of various lengths. I find, however, that the pace of neither man nor horse is constant in length during all rates of walking; consequently, where precision is sought, it is better to use this Table on a method of approximation. That is to say, the traveller should find his approximate rate by using the number of seconds appropriate to his estimated speed. Then, knowing the length of pace due to that approximate rate, he will proceed afresh by adopting a revised number of seconds, and will obtain a result much nearer to the truth than the first. Table I. could of course be employed for finding the rate of a carriage, when the circumference of one of its wheels was known ; but it is troublesome to make such a measurement. I therefore have calculated Table II., in terms of the radius of the wheel. The formulae by which the two Tables have been calculated are, m = l x 0.5682 for Table I., and m = r x 3.570 for Table II., where m is the appropriate number of seconds; I is the length of the pace, or circumference of tLe wheel ; and r is the radius of the wheel.

The Tables will be found on the next page.