Mr. F. GALTON asked Major Wilson if he could give any explanation of the tunnels near Jaffa. Major WILSON said the water from the limestone hills appeared to have been kept back by the parallel ranges of tertiary sandstone. Marshes had thus been formed, and, at some unknown period, drifts were cut through the sandstone hills in order to drain the marshes behind. These drifts were, in many cases, now closed, and that was one reason why the neighbourhood of Jaffa was so unhealthy during certain seasons. Miasma was produced by the stopping up of the waters. There was a large tunnel, 10 feet or 12 feet high, cut right through the sandstone.
Discussion on Major Wilson's Paper on Recent Surveys in Sinai and Palestine
Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society